• Eurasia Staff

Eurasia Research Quarterly Newsletter: SSHRA (August 2018- November 2018)

Updated: Mar 22, 2019


Social Science and Humanities Research Association (SSHRA)

Web: https://sshraweb.org/

Email: convener@eurasiaresearch.info




Dear SSHRA Members,


Greetings and sincere thanks for your patronage and support. SSHRA has now grown to 9128 followers and members from 48 countries


SSHRA List of Members

We are glad to present to you our latest edition of the newsletter. The newsletter showcases the associations current and upcoming endeavours.

Conferences Held:

SSHRA has successfully organised following International conferences in the period of August 2018-November 2018

(SSHRA Upcoming Conferences)


We thank all the participants for their active participation in our Conferences. We thank all members, participants and supporting organisations for making these conferences successful.

SSHRA Collaborations:

It is our constant endeavour to associate with academicians, researchers, students, professionals and organisations. This collaboration is the crux of our growth and contribution to the society. We are proud to have following organisational collaborations:

  • Nanyang Technological University, Singapore (Venue Provider)

  • Yildiz Technical University, 34349 Beşiktaş, Istanbul, Turkey (Venue Provider)

  • Rumah University, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia (Venue Provider)

  • Imperial College London, South Kensington Campus, London SW7 2AZ, UK (Venue Provider)

  • Buein Zahra Technical University, Iran (Collaboration)

  • Research and Markets Limited, Dublin, Ireland (Collaboration)

  • CNKI (China National Knowledge Infrastructure), China (Collaboration)

  • International Journal of Computer Science and Business Informatics (IJCSBI), Mauritius (Collaboration)

  • Linton University College, KTG Group, Malaysia (Collaboration)

  • Asian Institute of Technology (AIT), Conference Center, Bangkok, Thailand (Venue Provider)

  • Peacful Mind Foundation, India (Partner)

  • Tresorix Ltd. Mauritius (Collaboration)

  • ResearchSEA, Asia Research News, UK (Media Partner)

  • International Journal of Learning, Teaching and Educational Research, Mauritius (Collaboration)

  • International Journal of Supply Chain Management (Scopus indexed), London (Collaboration)

  • GTIS, Taiwan (Green Technology Invention Society, Taiwan) (Collaboration)

  • Tecnico (Universidade de Lisboa), Campus da Alameda, Lisbon, Portugal (Venue Provider)

  • Srishti International, Bangalore, India (Collaboration)

  • Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain (Venue Provider)

  • Kasetsart University, KU Home, Bangkok, Thailand (Venue Provider)

We will be glad to partner with your organisation. Please write to convener@eurasiaresearch.info  for assistance.

Job Openings

SSHRA is searching for talented and energetic conference coordinators (part-time) who are working/ studying at following locations:


Dubai/ London/ Barcelona/ Lisbon/ Rome/ Kuala Lumpur/ Bali/ Singapore/ Bangkok


Its a golden opportunity to be a part of our global team, to interact and associate with International academicians, display your leadership and organising skills and earn handsome honorarium.

All interested and eligible candidates are requested to contact us with their CV, Photograph, Cover Letter on convener@eurasiaresearch.info




Eurasia Research International Conference began with opening remarks by Honourable Keynote speaker highlighting the main context on Social Issues.


The main aim of this conference was:

  • Advancement of academic knowledge through encouraging research activities

  • To create a global community of scholars

  • Promotion of innovative thinking and ideas on a global platform

  • Making knowledge accessible to one and all using technology and ideas

  • Contributing towards making the world a better place to live

Our worthy Keynote speakers open up the conference enlightening participants with their speech.

Here are our List of keynote speakers who participated in our conference.


Dr. Noor Hanim Rahmat of Academy of Language Studies, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Shah Alam, Malaysia

Petro Van Der Merwe of Department of Psychology, University of South Africa, South Africa

Asst. Prof. Rommel V. Tabula of TESOL Specialist, Rajamangala University of Technology Lanna Tak, Thailand

Zvi C. Koren of Director of The Edelstein Center for the Analysis of Ancient Artifacts, Department of Chemical Engineering, Shenkar College of Engineering, Design and Art, Ramat Gan, Israel

Farung Mee-Udon of Assistant Professor, Department of Sociology and Anthropology, Faculty of Social Sciences, Naresuan University, Thailand

Manilyn Piloton-Narca of Arts and Sciences, Cebu Doctors' University, Mandaue City, Philippines

Holger Nord of Area South East, Victorian School of Languages, Australia

Joseph U. Almazan of Assistant Professor, Nursing Department, College of Applied Medical Sciences, Saudi Arabia

Eleftherios Ntotsikas of Department of European Studies, Lund University,Thessaloniki, Greece

Michael W H Chan of Department of Social Science, Hang Seng Management College, Hong Kong

Vasiliki Kakosimou of Head officer of Regional Asylum Office (RAO) of Piraeus, Athens


Dr. Swati Dabral of Max Planck Institute for Heart and Lung Research, Bad Nauheim, Germany

Dr Namita Panicker of Chelsea and Westminster NHS trust, London, UK, Affiliated with Imperial College School of Medicine, London, United Kingdom

Dr Rozana Huq of Organizational Behaviorist, Conference Speaker, Management Author, Leadership Educator and Coach, United Kingdom

Dr. Marco Angelini of Senior Researcher in Engineering in Computer Science at University of Rome “La Sapienza”, Italy

Agnieszka Ilendo-Milewska of Private University of Pedagogy in Bialystok, in the Department of Psychology in Poland

Abdelnaser Aljahani (Plenary) of College of Law, Sultan Qaboos University, Muscat, Oman

Dr. Jari Martikainen of Faculty of Social Science and Business Studies, Department of Social Sciences (Social Psychology), University of Eastern Finland, Finland

Krisztina Soreg of National University of Public Service, Budapest, Hungary

Victoria Dunaeva of Humanistic Sciences, The co-founder and head of Activus Aspectus. Innovative Laboratory, Warsaw, Poland

Taramol. K.G Assistant Professor of School of Business, Manipal University Dubai, UAE

Arunima Anil of Department of Sociology, Faculty of Social Sciences, University of Kerala, Kerala, India

Dr. Abdelhak Senadjki, Assistant Professor of Economics at the Faculty of Business and Finance, Universiti Tunku Abdul Rahman (UTAR), Malaysia


Prof. Mapa Thilakarathna of Department of Mass Communication, University of Kelaniya, Kelaniya, Sri Lanka

Prof. (Mrs) R. Lalitha S Fernando of Department of Public Administration, University of Sri Jayewardenepura, Nugegoda, Sri Lanka

Athanasios Raftopoulos of Department of Psychology, University of Cyprus, Nicosia, Cyprus

Highlighted the context related to Social Science and Humanities issue emerging all around the world and help us to understand the society in a better way.


In order to Promote Young Researchers, Eurasia Research International conferences, Provides Young Research Scholarship in the form of full Registration fee waiver to participate in such events.


Here are our List of Young Research Scholars who participated in our conference .



Adjnu Damar Ladkoo of Department of Management, University of Mauritius

Impacts of Climate Change on the Tourism Industry in Small Island Developing States- An Empirical Review

Abstract: Climate change is no longer some far-off problem; it is happening here; it is happening now (Barack Obama, World Economic Forum, 2015). Climate change is impacting on several industries including that of tourism. Emergence of renewable energies, promotion of green marketing, arousal of new policies, protection of sea bio diversities and review of airlines carbon emissions are some of the latest considerations in the tourism world. The stimulus is truly climate change. More than ever before, have stakeholders of the tourism industry been motivated to search for solutions about the adverse impacts of climate change. Escalating pressures from the latter give today’s tourism stakeholders a blurred picture about the future of this industry. When some of the impacts are visible others are indirect and can only be perceived when the harm has been done, unfortunately. Amongst some of the impacts of climate change are: rising sea level, increased risk with sea water activities, movement of harmful sea creatures towards beaches, sand erosion, bleaching of corals, more cyclones that entail no shows in hotels, less booking and waste of resources among others. Time has come to put in the forefront a sustainable future for the tourism industry; especially for vulnerable destinations like Small Island Development States (SIDS). This paper is geared towards such an attempt through an empirical review. A collation of several studies elaborating on the impacts of climate change was made. This paper would be of interest to stakeholders who are studying about climate change and its impacts on the tourism industry in small island developing states such that more insightful practical solutions can be derived for the benefit of all stakeholders of tourism and SIDS.

Keywords: Climate, Change, Impact, Tourism, Island


Susi Dian Rahayu of Student of Master Political Science, Universitas Indonesia

Analysis Conflict of United Development Party (PPP) at Local Election of Central

Kalimantan at 2015

Abstract: Central Kalimantan is one of area in Indonesia which held local election at 2015. But, in the process of local election, there is any problem with contain about conflict of United Development Party (PPP), one of party in Indonesia which participated in local election. This paper aims to analyze of conflict in internal of United Development Party (PPP) at local election of Central Kalimantan in 2015. Research question in this paper are why there is conflict of internal in United Development Party (PPP) at local election in Central Kalimantan 2015? And what effect of the conflict for local election in Central Kalimantan? The main method uses in this research are observation, indepth interview and literature study to obtain the objective results. Researcher observed in some agenda like courts session in this case. In other hand, Researcher also interview with a number of politician in Central Kalimantan and politician of United Development Party (PPP). Literature study towards some journals, scientific papers, newspapers and other sourches which are further analyzed by the researcher. This paper use teories of conflict by Dahrendorf, political recruitment by Gabriel Almond and Geddens, and Factionalization by Paul G Lewis and Belloni. The results of this research are: The reason why there is internal conflict in United Development Party (PPP) in local election at Central Kalimantan because there is facsionalism party in center level, Romahurmuziy and Djan Faridz Faction, and then make a conflict in province and region. In other hand, both Romahurmuziy faction and Djan Faridz faction have a different candidate in the end of process candidating, so United Development Party (PPP) support to candidate was discualificated by Election Organizer (KPU), and one of candidate namely Ujang- Jawawi were discualificated in the proces of local election of Central Kalimantan at 2015 one month before voting day, because their party support were’nt enough for prerequirement of candidate.

Keywords: Local election, conflict, factionalism


Sean Tan Yong Wei of Research Scholar, Kings College London, London

Overnight Memory Consolidation of Vocabulary in a Foreign Language in Children

Abstract: Aim: Current literature suggests sleep helps children and adults learn new words and nonsense syllables. However, the effect of sleep on their ability to learn words in a foreign language is under-researched. This study aims to investigate this topic. Methodology: Using a customised Ipad game, Male and female English-speaking children aged 7-14 years learned animal names in Finnish and were tested on recognition (N = 19) and recall (N = 12), before and after 12 hours of sleep and wakefulness. A within-subjects crossover design was used. Results: Analysis with a 2-way repeated measures ANOVA revealed that recall improved significantly after sleep [F (1,11) = 5.04, p = 0.046, np2 = 0.314], whereas recognition did not [F (1,18) = 0.118, p = 0.736, np2 = 0.006]. Discussion: The results suggest that sleep improves the ability of children to learn the vocabulary of a foreign language. As recall memory utilizes hippocampal resources, this overnight learning may be attributable to hippocampal dependent mechanisms that occur during sleep i.e. the neocortical-hippocampal dialogue. Additionally, the methodology used in this study could provide a novel way of measuring clinical outcomes for sleep interventions.


Krishan Mohan Patel of Central University of Punjab, India

Image Enhancement By Cuckuckoo Search Algorithm For Crime Investigation

Abstract: In the criminal investigation field, images are the principal forms for investigation and for probing crime detection. The imaging science applied in criminal investigation is face detection, Baggage Scanned imaging, satellite imaging, surveillance camera imaging, and crime scene analysis. One of the most important issues in the image processing is contrast enhancement. The point of picture enhancement is to enhance the impression of data in pictures for human watchers or interpretability, or to offers the `best' input benefit to the various automated image processing approaches. There are number of image processing techniques exists which are proposed by different researchers in order to enhance image contrast without significant noise enhancement.In this work we combine the concept of adaptive filters with neural networks (Cuckoo Search) in order to include high level knowledge about the contents of the image in the filtering process. In this research work, firstly the existing cuckoo search algorithm is modified and then this modified algorithm is associated with the Histogram Equalization algorithm. Then this proposed algorithm is used to regulate the intensity and contrast parameters of the images. The Experimental results of the proposed technique demonstrate that the proposed Approach is enhance the contrast without losing the information of the images. Also, the PSNR value for the proposed work is higher than the other existing Cuckoo search enhancement techniques.



Majid Ariyoga of Department of Linguistics, University of Indonesia (UI)

Disfluency in Producing Speech on the Contestants of Stand-Up Comedy Indonesia Season 7 Audition in Jakarta

Abstract: Everyone must have experienced disfluency to speak clearly due to obstacles in processing words in the brain. In addition, mental condition and self-readiness can also affect the fluency of a person in speaking. Related to that case, this paper studied disfluency in producing speech (DPS), the incompleteness of a person in producing speech. The subjects of this research were the contestants of Stand-Up Comedy Indonesia Season 7 (SUCI 7) audition organized by Kompas TV in Jakarta. In that event, several contestants made DPS when they performed stand-up comedy, so their conveyed speech was unexpected and did not run well. Because that phenomenon associated with mental and language process in mind, it was exactly analyzed trough Psycholinguistics study. To achieve directed analysis, the author summarized two research problems which were basis of the research analysis in this paper, namely 1) what were the kinds of DPS made by the contestants of the SUCI 7 audition; and 2) what were the factors causing the DPS on the contestants of the SUCI 7 audition. Based on such research problems, the purposes of this research were 1) systematically to explain the kinds of DPS made by those contestants; and 2) to reveal the main factors causing DPS on those contestants. The author applied qualitative methods to conduct this research in order to gain the expected results. In analyzing DPS, the author combined the theory proposed by Dardjowidjojo (2014), namely senyapan (the pause); and Carrol (2008), namely slip of the tongue. The results of the analysis showed that the five observed contestants of the SUCI 7 audition made DPS consisting of the pause such as filled pause; and slip of the tongue such as addition, substitution, and blend. The several factors causing the DPS on those contestants were not only psychological factor such as mental readiness, but also adequate practice and material mastery. Scientifically, this study contributes additional knowledge in science of language especially Psycholinguistics study, while practically, this study is beneficial for the entertainers such as comics to understand DPU and to trigger them improving capability.


In each, Eurasia Research Conference, best paper award is given to best researches. In Social Science and Humanities Research Association (SSHRA), Best paper award is given to the participants with best scholarly paper submitted and presented at the conference.


Desan Iyer of Department of Law, Faculty, University of Zululand, South Africa

Preparing Law Students for Practice: A Nonverbal Skill Development Approach

Abstract: Many law bodies in South Africa such as the Law Society, Judiciary and National Prosecuting Authority have expressed concern about the competency of law graduates to practice law in the “real world”. The growing concern about the disjuncture between legal education and the professional demands and the shortage of practice skills has been cited as one of the major stumbling blocks. A cause for concern is that modern day legal studies at many tertiary institutions in South Africa exclude the study of nonverbal communication as a standalone module in their law curriculums. Therefore, within the domain of the legal profession and the tertiary environment, there has been a degree of ignorance about the effectiveness of nonverbal communication as a means of improving the so called “practice” skills of attorneys. In South Africa as well as worldwide, there has been little scholarship concerning nonverbal skill development in law. Some investigations have been undertaken on the role and importance of nonverbal behaviour as a communicative tool, yet limited research had been undertaken on its impact and benefits to the legal profession. The article seeks to address the grey area that currently exists within the current legal framework with the objective of introducing nonverbal practice into the law curriculums. As a way forward, it will become evident that there is a strong need for robust practical and skills emphasis in most law programmes, and such interrogation should ultimately prepare graduates for practice. The study of nonverbal communication amalgamated with traditional legal skills would go a long way in producing law graduates who have a systematic and coherent body of knowledge as well as a high level of cognitive and generic skills that paves the way forward for successful practice.


Hyunju Ryu

(College of Liberal Studies, Faculty of Foreign Language Education, Busan University of Foreign Studies, Busan, South Korea)

“Christmas Philosophy,” Religiosity and Festivity in Korea

Abstract: This research is triggered by a recent new argument about the old western holiday, Christmas, in South Korea in association with the controversial slogan of 2018 Pyeongchang Paralympics, “Christmas in March.” Because of the word, “Christmas,” it faced a strong opposition from local Buddhist leaders and was eventually changed into “Spring in March,” only 10 days prior to the Paralympic Winter Games. In this paper, I will revisit and address how Korean people perceive and celebrate Christmas from local perspectives by using a global term, “Christmas Philosophy” to connote the two things: it means Christmas sentiments or spirits generally; and at the same time, it refers to Charles Dickens’s Christmas Carol academically. Christmas is the most popular western holiday in Korea despite of its Christian originality, and has been celebrated as a special day for Christians and a year-end festive season for the general public as well. There is even A Santa-Clause Town in Buncheon, a year-round famous tourist attraction, and there is also a famous Korean movie titled Christmas in August. During the holiday season, various adaptations of the Dickens’s work are performed almost every year and Scrooge is the most frequently-mentioned seasonal figure in the nation. As such, Christmas has become a synonym of festivity, hopes, philanthropy, and this is also how Christmas scenes are depicted in Korean arts and pop cultures. Meanwhile, against this secularity, its Christian color has always been lingering sensitively in religious circles as with the case of the slogan controversy.



Erwin L. Oamil of College of Graduate Studies and Teacher Education Research, Philippine Normal University, Taft. Ave., Manila, Republic of the Philippines

Crossing the Bar: A Comparative Analysis of the Dostoevskian Elements and Influences in Joaquin’s Fiction

Abstract: This paper expounds how deep the great Russian fictionist Fyodor Dostoevsky had influenced his Filipino counterpart Nick Joaquin’s own works by applying comparative method of research. Sixteen (16) “Dostoevskian” elements and influences are found evident in Joaquin’s representative works, which further validate the Russian master’s timeless and universal relevance to the literary tradition. Relatively, the English Virginia Woolf views the novels of Dostoevsky as “seething whirlpools, gyrating sandstorms, waterspouts which hiss and boil and suck in.” Even against his readers’ wills, she further posits, the Russian master draws them “whirled around, blinded, suffocated, and at the same time filled with giddy rapture.” In contrast, the Czech Franz Kafka cited Dostoevsky as his “blood relative” for he was heavily influenced by his works, especially The Brothers Karamazov and Crime Punishment, which had profound effects in The Trial, Kafka’s own masterpiece. Joaquin for his part is already a titan of Philippine Literature, in his own respect, particularly in the English medium. His magnitude, however, can be tested further through the Dostoevskian standard, which is often used in comparison to the creative powers of other writers. By and large, this study contributes to the growth of comparative literature and Philippine studies. More wittingly, it can strengthen the understanding that the creative process of literary art extends to the other spheres of human expression, such as philosophy, history, religion, and psychology, even culture.

Keywords: Alienation, comparative literature, Dostoevskian influences, split personality, suffering


Jari Martikainen of Faculty of Social Sciences and Business Studies, Department of Social Sciences (Social Psychology),University of Eastern Finland, Finland

Good Manager: A Social Representations Perspective Based on Images Drawn by Students in Finnish Secondary Vocational Education

Abstract: This research examines graduating students’ conceptions of a good manager in Finland. Fifteen graduating students in a Finnish Upper Secondary Vocational Education were asked to draw a picture of a good manager. Theoretically, the research draws from the theory of social representations and regards the participants’ drawings as objectifications of social representations of leadership among graduating students. The drawings were analysed using visual content analysis. The results of the research show that the majority of students regarded a good manager as a middle-aged, formally dressed man or woman with a friendly facial expression as well as formal attire.


Antonio Olivera-La Rosa of Department of Psychology and Social Sciences,Universidad Catolica Luis Amigo,Medellin, Colombia

A Cross-Cultural Comparison of Affective Priming Effects on Moral Judgments: Colombia vs Spain

Abstract: The role of cultural variables on automatic evaluative judgments is still a novel empirical topic. Built on previous studies showing that affective priming by mutilation pictures reduced the severity of moral judgments in a Spanish population, the present study addresses the interaction between a particular cultural context (Colombian population) and the severity of moral judgments through the affective priming paradigm. Specifically, given the “extreme” nature of the affective primes (highly arousing unpleasant pictures depicting blood and mutilation), we considered an intriguing question to test whether the documented influence remains consistent in a country with high rates of violence such as Colombia.Method: All Colombian participants were university students (N = 126; 39 males; age M = 20.6, SD = 1.95). The Spanish sample was composed of 81 participants (24 males; age M = 21.2, SD = 1.75). Affective primes (mutilation and neutral) were presented at extremely short (20ms) and short (250ms) exposure times. Participants judged moral and non-moral dilemmas using a 7-point Likert scale. Results: We found that affective priming by mutilation pictures induced at both extremely short and short exposure times did not influence the severity of moral judgments in a population that is less sensitive to the affective content of these type of stimuli (i.e., Colombian population), t(125) = -0.938, p = 1, r = .084. This finding contrasts with previous results showing that affective priming by mutilation pictures reduced the severity of moral judgments in a Spanish population, t(80) = -4.091, p < .001, r = .416. All together, these results suggest that a cultural variable such as sensitivity to violent stimuli modulates the effect of affective priming on moral judgment. Indeed, the role of cultural differences in research on the automaticity of moral judgment may be greater than previously assumed. We believe that the fact that people from different cultures differ in basic psychological processes is an important issue that needs to be addressed in more depth by future research.

Keywords: Morality, Cultural Differences, Colombia, Spain, Affective Priming


Sadique C. of Department of English,Calicut University, Nilambur, India

Psychology of Frustration and Atomic Bombs

Abstract: Which is more hazardous in making long term impacts, frustration or atomic bombs? What are the types of and how frustration plays significant role in causing heart diseases? And how psyche relates with heart via frustration? What made me to take a brown study in the massive impact of frustration is the observation that being born as an African American increases the chance of dying from cardiovascular diseases. The research has revealed unbelievable results in connected with becoming frustrated will cause for severe mental problems and physical too. The study has find out that the root cause of heart diseases in African Americans is they had been frustrated throughout centuries differently and yet now also in the mere name of colour and race. For instance since 1555 they had been cursed by slavery, Jim Crow and disenfranchisement. Even in modern days segregation has not been vanished from sub continents.The study also does open new doors to how psyche and heart interrelated via several path ways while psychical problems last in physical illness. The research does appropriate discussions on both positive and negative emotions followed by variety of life experiences and its impact in daily life. At last as it is necessary mitigation of dilemmas also suggested along with heralding the primness and relevance of the study in a world of discrimination on the basis of caste, gender, colour and religion.

Keywords: Frustration, Psyche, African American, Cardiovascular Diseases, Slavery



Alper Aksu of Department of Private Law, Institute of Social Sciences, Dokuz Eylul University, Izmir, Turkey

Legal Nature of Private Nursing Home and Nursing Home Elderly Care Center Admission Contract in Turkish Law

Abstract: Old age became a problem in the modern society when we consider getting old of World population day by day. Therefore instutions emerged which take upon old people's care. With increasingly loneliness of older people and they failure to address their own needs, the importance of care which presented for them has increased. Private nursing homes and nursing home elderly care centers are one of the most important institutions involved in care and take into account the wishes and expectations of the older people and service meets these demands and expectations are of great importance. The private nursing homes along with social reforms which in recent years have been rapidly increased in number are prefferred with a wiev of getting better care more often than not by old people. In this study, the legal nature of the contract was examined that established between the old people who apllied to the private nursing home and the private nursing home and which was referred to as the private nursing home admisson contract in the doctrine and practise. The different views put forward are discussed in it. The case law on the issue has been taken into consideration in addition to the options of the doctirne on the legal nature of the acceptance contract to the private nursing home in the study. And the provisions to be applied according to the nature of the contract have been established after the legal nature of the admission contract to the private nursing home has been determined.

Keywords: Elderly Care, Private Nursing Home, Nursing Home Elderly Care center, Private Nursing Home Admission contract


Sheng-Yu Peng of Taiwan Baptist Christian Seminary,Taipei City, Taiwan

Imaginative Literature and Dramatic Anthropology: Hans Urs von Balthasar’s Use of Literature in his Theo-Drama

Abstract: While many studies in recent years have focused on the relationship of Hans Urs von Balthasar’s trinitarian theology, Christology, and biblical interpretation to his dramatic anthropology, just few have studied his engagement with literature and dramatic anthropology. In this paper, I will explore how Balthasar relates literature to human existence by defending a theatrical analogy in his Theo-Drama. And I will examine the dialectics of imaginative literature and dramatic anthropology in his literary art form with three perspectives: tragedy, aesthetics, and myth. Tragedy is the approach through which Balthasar builds to span the distance between literary criticism and his anthropology. Aesthetics is given foundational status which will make it possible for Balthasar to use imaginative literature as a resource for dramatic anthropology. Balthasar’s continuing criticism of anthropological idealism leads him to myth and literature as privileged vehicles of human encounter with the divine, since both myth and literature are inextricably bound up with visibility and symbol. I will discuss each of these perspectives in turn.

In the end, I will come up with a critical point that Balthasar’s literary criticism and his anthropology include a theological contradiction which is not resolved through his employing “quasi-sacramental” language in describing non-Christian literary anthropologies, although positively Balthasar’s dramatic anthropology provides a style for how theological aesthetics may proper literature as a beneficial resource for theology, rather than merely employing literature to elucidate a priori theological conclusions. I argue that Balthasar cannot concurrently hold that classical mythology and its literary expressions are both a sign of grace and also a case of human self-justification only if this claim is explained in more detail.

Keywords: Anthropology, Drama, Tragedy, Aesthetics, Literature


Meryem Ayan

(Department of American Culture and Literature, Faculty of Science and Letters, Pamukkale University, Denizli Turkey)


The Species of Violence in Oates’ the Female of the Species

Abstract: Joyce Carol Oates in her novel, The Female of the Species (collection of nine tales) presents the lives of various women highlighted in the tales of mystery and suspicious ending related to the violence hidden behind female trauma. The women characters related to the their traumatic experiences become killers, either by their own hands or through manipulation and provocation by others. Each story tells the story of a woman that for one reason or another has experienced a traumatic experience, therefore they act in violence. The reasons behind female violence are portrayed under different traumas such as; abandonment, betrayal, sexual and physical abuse, sexual harassment, emotional and psychological boundaries that lead women to emotional breakdown, secret passions that cause mental and physical traumatic problems. These species of traumas in Oates novel, push the female characters to cruelty, brutality and even madness. Actually, stereotypically the woman expressed as “the victim” has turned into a "violent individual" due to her traumatic experiences that wounded the females psychoanalytically. Thus, the types of traumas behind the female brutality and murderous intentions will be analyzed from a psychoanalytical feminism perspective by emphasizing the species of trauma in Oates’ The Female of the Species.


Yurdagul Adanali of Department of Philosophy, Selcuk University, Konya, Turkey

What Philosophy Says about the Leaders as Causes of Cultural Conflicts: Are they Rational Actors or Not?

Abstract: In recent decades, some essentialist theories have claimed that norms and values in a society are the main motivation for human decisions and behavior. Some proponents of these theories think that it is impossible to explain cultural behavior since cultural issues remain outside the boundaries of rationality and philosophy. The widespread research method about them is, first, to give an explanation of cases and values that constitute cultures and identities and then, to interpret conflicts as deviation from the established and shared norms. So the issue of culture, identity or cultural conflicts may be seen as lying outside scope of immediate philosophical interest. But this seems contradictory because whereas the rationality theories in philosophy, especially choice theories, are based on universal assumptions, offer strategies for decision-making and solutions for the practical problems in life, their silence over cultural matters is not acceptable. By drawing upon the contemporary debates on rationality, I would like to focus on the issue of culture and identity to analyze them in a wider philosophical and critical perspective. Further, I would like to specifically address the issue of leaders and their rationality from a philosophical perspective. I will claim that leaders take the issue of culture and identity as given in conformity with their interests and put stress on cultural differences to get more benefits by using some strategies. The motivation that drives these strategies is that the more identity and culture issues become contentious, the more followers believe in the necessity of initiating a conflict. Indeed, it is easy for the leaders to pursue the strategies, because people generally believe that their leaders do not initiate the cultural conflicts just for self-serving purposes. Therefore, I believe that this discussion will achieve two things: first, the rationality theories may have a potential to bring under their scope previously neglected fields such as culture and conflicts and second, the pervasive opinion that culture, conflicts and cultural behavior are not relevant to rationality and philosophy must be reconsidered.

Keywords: philosophy, rationality, culture, leaders, conflict.

Dr. Sasivimol Meeampol

(Department of Accounting, Faculty of Business Administration, Kasetsart University,Thailand)


Tax Innovation in Thailand

Abstract: One source of fiscal year budget is tax revenue. Nowadays, tax revenue in Thailand has decreased and there are only 4 million taxpayers among Thai people. Thai government tries to set a policy to gather additional tax revenue as well as trying to make the tax collection procedure efficient. This study is aimed at investigating the initial pilot innovation tax system in Thailand. AI (Artificial Intelligence) is assigned to do the tax collection procedure for more efficient processing of tax revenue. AI is the process of using technology where computers are used to help and manage human simulation intelligence process using machines especially computer system. Moreover, the process will be used to simulate information. Also, tax process in Thailand will use Risk Based Audit (RBA) to comprise with the AI. RBA is an automated selection of taxpayers for tax auditing based on the risk concept. The RBA is under the Risk based approach. There are several ways to set the RBA comprise to AI in tax collection procedure. Such example of using AI with RBS is the Ministry of Industry. The Ministry will have the information of several databases, such as, the production amount, size of factory, size of labor and the amount payment of utility expense. These factors will be used to comprise to the amount of revenue to calculate tax payment. The pilot innovation tax system increased tax revenue and efficiency, save time, and reduce costs.

Keywords: Artificial Intelligence, Innovation, Risk Based Audit, Tax Revenue


James Weber

Management Department, St. Cloud State University, St. Cloud, United States of America

Toward a Taxonomy of Online Class Email Communication in Business Classes

Abstract: This study examined email communications between students and the professor in sections of a management class taught in both online and face to face formats. It developed preliminary classifications of the types of communications exchanged in these classes. Email communications between the professor and 58 students enrolled in online sections of an introductory management class were compared to emails with 42 students enrolled in an otherwise identical face to face class. The study used both descriptive statistics and content analysis to identify preliminary classifications of types of communication and to document communications differences in email exchanges between the different pedagogies. Findings indicated differences in both communication rates and in the nature of communication types between the two pedagogical formats. Results point to areas where professors teaching online can expect student emails and proactively prepare responses and address problem areas. Future research should confirm the developed classifications and inform best practices for the development of high quality communications in classes taught in an online format.

Key Words: Taxonomy, Online communications, Online pedagogy, Email Communications, Content Analysis


Heidi Bayoumy of Department of English Language and Literature, Faculty of Arts,Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt

Out of Time/ Out of Space: A Study of the Portrayal of Post-War Iraq in the Iraqi Play Out of Time

Abstract: This paper seeks to examine the Iraqi play Out of Time (2009) and its portrayal of Iraq after the war and the fall of Saddam Hussein through the eyes of the Iraqi diaspora. The play is based on The Feast of the Goat by Mario Vargas LIosa and is adapted by The Actor Studio, an Iraqi diaspora theatre group that resides in England. It fully exposes the conflict that most Iraqis feel in post-Saddam Iraq: yearning to the past with all its sorrows and/or appreciating the present in which freedom is enjoyed, but accompanied by disorder and instability. The play, through the different theatrical elements (such as light, music, movement of the actors, décor, and the back stage screen) also sheds light on the relationship between the ruler and the ruled emphasizing its complexity: the Dictator, the major character in the play who, paradoxically, boasts of his crimes, yet confesses his inner sufferings and daily nightmares, and Zahra, the daughter who has returned to her homeland after years of banishment in Europe, but this return brings her neither happiness nor peace of mind. Her shock that her home town and its people have become “out of time” permeates the entire play. To fully analyze such a relationship and to understand how Iraq is represented in this play, the paper will dwell upon Theatre and Performance Studies, an interdisciplinary field/theory that studies performance from a literary and cultural perspective. The paper will also employ semiotics of the theater to analyze the different theatrical elements and their important role in highlighting the suffering of the characters in their homeland.

Keywords: Iraq, Out of Time, Diaspora, Saddam Hussein, Post-war Iraq, Performance Studies, Theatre.


Mary Fatima Lompot of Management and Marketing Department, Adamson University, Philippines

Using Social Media as a Marketing Tool for Travellers

Abstract: This research assessed the influence of social media in the information search and decision-making processes of local leisure travelers working in the BPO (Business Process Outsourcing) industry in Metro Manila. It synthesized existing researches, concepts and theories to understand how social media applications influence local travelers. It also presented a snapshot of how consumers gather information and make decisions regarding their travel purchases in this rapidly increasing, commercialized field. Specifically, the paper described the socio-demographic profile of the travelers, i.e., in terms of age, gender, civil status, educational attainment and income. Information on their travel history was also described particularly on leisure travels and, especially, its frequency and the travel destinations covered within a year. Pre-travel preparations were also described, such as information being searched and the sources of information that were accessed. It determined the social media sites most frequently used by travelers, the factors and elements that help in making their travel decisions, and the problems and issues they encountered. A profile comparison between social media and non-social media users was also made to determine if there was a significant difference between the two sets of respondents.The research focused on employees working in BPOs because they represent an attractive segment for the tourism industry. The findings revealed that individuals who tend to travel more are young individuals, single, and with average to high-disposable income. Their profile reflected those of individuals who love to have fun, seek adventure and do travel explorations whether it be near or far. The result also showed that accessibility and easy information searches are the major factors that influence the choice of social media, followed by real-time connections and interactions. Social media, specifically Facebook, was considered to be the most effective and efficient marketing tool to advertise travel-related information. Testimonies shared online by friends and families, as well as colleagues, through photographs and videos are critical game-changers that influence travel decisions. Furthermore, this research looked at the major problems encountered by travelers in using social media, such as the filtered opinion of bloggers; insufficient, outdated and inaccurate information; and lack of network provider coverage. Lastly, findings proved that local leisure travelers do not significantly differ in their use of social media.The results of the study were used to propose and formulate a marketing program that would maximize the use of social media effectively and efficiently. Further studies using other internet platforms may be explored by the Department of Tourism and Tour Operators to expand the coverage beyond BPO employees. (The proposed marketing tool did not only address the young travelers but also other travelers from the various sectors of the society.)

Keywords: Business Process Outsourcing, Social Media, Local Travelers, Leisure Travel, Tourism


Akanksha Badyal, Research Student, School of languages and literature Shri Mata Vaishno Devi University of languages and literature, India

Dialectic of Root and Multiplicity: A Post Feminist Inquiry of Indian Chick-Lit

Abstract: Feminist discourses even in its latest discursive arenas though acknowledges intersectional realities and heterogeneity of its subject of study that is women, in some way also reiterates certain root like commonalities amongst all the women across the world like patriarchy as the perennial reference. This indicates toward the inherent crisis. The feminist movement which on the one hand advocates multiplicity and intersectional realities connects them with the idea or attributes of gender roles. The present article hypothesises that Chick Lit women negotiate between power structure and their feminine self beyond any ideological negotiations or traces which create their multiple identities. Further, the article aims at exploring the rhizomatic attitude of Chick generation who by defying the dialectic of root and multiplicity exercise the post feminist ideology of choice and individuality.

Keywords: Rhizome, Multiplicity, Chick Lit, Patriarchy, choice, individuality.


Judit Vegh of Doctoral School of Psychology, Institute of Intercultural Psychology and Education, Eotvos Lorand University, Budapest, Hungary

Transnational Families and Education

Abstract: Modern forms of communication and foreign learning opportunities are becoming widely available, multinational and transnational corporations are spreading and the migration is growing. These phenomena generate a large increase in the number of transnational families crossing boundaries of cultures and countries. At the same time, relatively few studies examine the intercultural adaptation of transnational spouses and their children, even though, on a daily basis the spouses are more directly connected to the local environment.There is a need for additional researches examining their living conditions, the characteristics of their integration, the peculiarities of their lifestyle and their everyday patterns. This study explores transnational families in Kuala Lumpur with the focus on their children’s education as an important strategic steps in local integration and subsequent family plans.

Keywords: Transnational Families, Education, Acculturation


Alaa Salhani of Department of Finance and Accounting, Faculty of Business, Arab International University, Damascus, Syria

A Proposed Model for Predicting the Financial Distress of Private Commercial Banks in Syria: An Empirical Study

Abstract: This study aims to find the best set of financial ratios that can be used to predict the financial distress of private commercial banks in Syria and to distinguish between distressed and non-distressed banks in the first and second year before the distress. In order to warn the concerned parties to intervene and take corrective actions in a timely manner and to restore the health of these banking institutions. To achieve this, a stepwise discriminant analysis was used and 21 financial ratios were calculated for a sample of 11 banks for a period between the years (2010-2016). The following proposed model was reached: Z = 14.746 (D/A) + 35.069 (L/A) -15.899 (NFE/A) -5.134 (NPM) -26.076. Test of the model has been done, and it was found to be able to predict the financial distress and distinguish between distressed and non-distressed banks with an accuracy rate 100% in the first and second year before the distress.

Keywords: Banks, Distress, Prediction, Financial ratios, Discriminant analysis.


Taufik Faturohman of School of Business and Management, Institut Teknologi Bandung, Bandung, Indonesia

Stakeholder Efficiency of Islamic Banks in Indonesia

Abstract: Islamic banking has grown rapidly, including in Indonesia, where it has grown relatively faster than non-Islamic banking but much slower than predicted by the Central Bank of Indonesia. This study investigates the growth of Indonesian Islamic banks to understand why they have not grown as predicted. It examines whether Indonesian Islamic banks differ from non-Islamic banks in terms of efficiency. A novel aspect of this dissertation is that the analysis of efficiency includes consideration of the different stakeholders that banks serve. This dissertation analyzes the impact of efficiency differences on the total asset growth of Indonesian Islamic banks to examine if differing efficiencies have affected their growth in Indonesia, and presents a detailed analysis of how the components of bank efficiency influence banks’ growth.

The empirical research is based on data from 2003–2010. Both financial information (balance sheets and income statements) and non-financial information (number of branches and number of employees) of all Islamic and non-Islamic banks in Indonesia are examined. The combination of financial and non-financial information allows the grouping of variables to determine efficiency by measuring relative stakeholder efficiency, with the application of Constant Returns to Scale and Variable Returns to Scale Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA). By applying the Mann-Whitney test, this research finds significant statistical differences between the efficiency scores of Islamic and non-Islamic banks. Regression analysis is also applied to determine the significance of the different components of stakeholder efficiency with regard to the growth of Islamic banking in Indonesia.The findings from both DEA efficiency measurement and regression analysis suggest that Islamic banks differ from their non-Islamic counterparts. The findings support the contention that Islamic banks are not doing business only to maximize their profits. Instead, they have social functions, to serve their customers and community. The regression results support the claim of Islamic banks that they focus on performing intermediation activities between borrowers and depositors. The findings also suggest that in order to grow, Islamic banks have to act in ways that customers perceive to be consistent with their social aims.Many Islamic banks are operating under Decreasing Returns to Scale efficiency, so expansion (growth) will not be to their benefit because of the underlying efficiency issues contributing to growth. The attempts of the Central Bank of Indonesia to improve the growth of Islamic banks by increasing their number of outlets through office channeling is probably not proficient considering the existing Decreasing Returns to Scale performance of the majority of Islamic banks. The findings of this thesis suggest that instead, Islamic banks should improve their stakeholder efficiency to attain sustainable growth.


Yasemin Develi

(India Institute, Department of Global Affairs, Faculty of SSPP,King's College, London, United Kingdom)


Explaining the causal link between the leadership style and change and continuity in Indian foreign policy during Vajpayee’s tenure.

Abstract: This research focuses on the change and continuity in Indian foreign policy during Vajpayee’s tenure and seeks to understand the causal mechanism behind it. It aims to explain the role of leaders in foreign policy decision-making process at critical junctions where maintaining status quo or changing the course is at play. The literature on Indian foreign policy explains the change from a systemic level, claiming that developments at global arena have major impact on redefining foreign policy of India, or ideational approach, claiming that in the domestic environment, existence of and contest between many ideological strands is the main driver in changing or maintaining existing policies in regard to external affairs. In line with the latter approach, some also have argued that domestic factors such as some states in India or business sector caused some desultory policy actions towards some neighbouring states and global economic powers, respectively. This study claims that foreign policy-making is a process in which global developments and domestic considerations are perceived and taken into account by the decision-makers. Therefore, in explaining any foreign policy decision, this study uses the individual unit of analysis and focuses on the leadership as the dominant actor among decision-makers and therefore primary determinant of change and continuity. In order to understand how the leadership play role in change and continuity, this study will develop a model which illustrates the stages of changing or maintaining a policy using the leadership traits analysis of Vajpayee. This model will be tested across two case studies. It will reveal how the external and internal considerations at the level of Prime Ministership can consolidate the new policy demand or maintain the existing dominant policies. In other words, this study aims to draw a causal link between leadership style and its role in policy change/maintenance in a decision-making process.

Yenglis Dongche

(Ni Nyoman Ayu Nikki Avalokitesvari Postgraduate Programme, Indonesia Defense University, Indonesia)


Our Eyes Initiative: Defense Management to Encounter The Threat of Maritime Terrorism in The Sulu Sea

Abstract: This research aims to analyze the defense management in order to encounter the threat of maritime terrorism in The Sulu Sea through Our Eyes Initiative. The Sulu Sea is a strategic economic area both for Indonesia, Malaysia and Philippines. Furthermore, it is one of the most restless maritime trade line which more than 55 million metric goods and 18 million peoples accrossing this region every years. However, the security of this region is on a challenge, considering to the arise of maritime terrorism such as Abu Sayyaf terrorist group. Since classified as a terrorist group in 2001, Abu Sayyaf has been identified through several boat reclinations in 2002 until 2016. The methodology of this research is qualitative explanatory. This research uses several theories such as: defense management theory, regional security cooperation theory, counter terrorism approach theory and the concept of maritime terrorism to scrutiny the maritime terrorism phenomena in The Sulu Sea. Our Eyes Initiative has becomes a panacea to demolish the maritime terrorism in the Sulu Sea. The cooperation between Indonesia, Malaysia and Philippines through Our Eyes Initiative cultivate an outstanding outcome in the security of this region which also give an impact on the global maritime trade line. This paper will elucidate about Our Eyes Initiative, as a tools of defense management from Indonesia, Malaysia and Philippines to encounter the threat of maritime terorrism in The Sulu Sea. The future scope of this research might elaborate the participation of Singapore and Brunei Darussalam in the security cooperation to enchance the effort for protecting The Sulu Sea.

Keywords: Our Eyes Initiative, Defense Management, Maritime Terrorism And The Sulu Sea.


Koralai Arachchige Vidyanjalie Abeygunawardena (Faculty of Education, University of Colombo, Sri Lanka)

Students’ Behavioural patterns on Bachelor’s degree choices in Sri Lanka: Heuristics?

Abstract: At present National university intake in Sri Lanka has become progressively competitive due to the limited number of placements. Consequently, several private higher educational institutes in Sri Lanka entered into the higher education market with various international degree programmes of top-ranked foreign universities to cater to the need of university-level education in Sri Lanka. Therefore, this study attempts to uncover the behavioural patterns of students in selecting a Bachelor’s degree from International Degree Programmes which emerged recently in Sri Lanka. Subsequently, the data for the study were collected by 420 first-year students of International Degree Programmes by administering a questionnaire with 59 predefined variables. Of those, 36 variables and 42 variables were identified as the most influential variables by factor analysis for the male and female group respectively. Thereby, it has determined that 'marketing strategy', 'university characteristics', 'infrastructure facilities', 'programme evaluation' and 'reputation of the university' were the common influential factors for both the groups but with different orders of importance. Alternatively, the 'peer' and 'sources of information' are rated as influential in selecting a Bachelor's degree only by the male group. Even though the female group have not remarked any 'information sources’ as influential, they rated the 'first impression' of the PHEI impact them in selecting the Bachelor's degree. However, 'financial support' and 'cost' are influential factors for the male group while 'cost' is not imperative for the female students in selecting their Bachelor's degree. Finally, higher education student-choice model was developed based on the heuristics of Sri Lankan students. Indeed the results of this study can be beneficial in optimising the enrolment strategies of Private higher educational Institutes in Sri Lanka and in guiding prospective students on their Bachelor's degree choices in higher education.

Keywords: Heuristics, Behavioural Patterns, Factor Analysis, Students’ Choice, Bachelor’s Degree, Higher Education, Peer, International Degree Programmes


Ridvan Tuncel (English Language Teaching, Anadolu University, Eskisehir, Turkey)

Teaching Pragmatic Competence in Prep School Classes through Task Based Activities

Abstract: No matter how flawless a sentence grammatically is, it cannot be a complete utterance in all aspects unless it also fulfils the requirements of being contextually appropriate. Although previously being somewhat ignored, pragmatic competence (PC) has been gaining importance over the past several decades as one of the hot topics in the field of ELT to find ways to teach language effectively. However, in today’s teaching understanding, rather than a more teacher-centered “focus on formS” approach, a more student-centered “focus on form” approach takes the stage. For this reason, it is becoming a must to ensure that non-natives are given the opportunities in their language learning situations through considering the invaluable contribution of PC. Thus, the teaching of PC and especially focusing on functions such as requesting, complaining, thanking and hundreds of others come forefront with the mission to provide learners with activities to raise pragmatic awareness. With this motivation, this empirical study aims to offer some awareness-raising course book supplementations within the scope of Task-Based Language Teaching to EFL university students in English Prep Classes. In an attempt to improve prep learners’ communicative skills, current course-book was supported by tasks; course-book materials were either improved or completely altered with the new ones. After carrying out supplementary activities in 12 hours throughout two weeks, findings, collected via a Written Discourse Completion Test, reveal that there was a significant improvement in students’ attaining the communicative goals in terms of some specifically selected functions of the study.

Keywords: Pragmatic Competence, EFL, TBLT, Functions


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