• Eurasia Staff

Eurasia Research Quarterly Newsletter: STRA (July 2019- September 2019)

Updated: Oct 22, 2019

Scientific and Technical Research Association (STRA)

Dear STRA Members,

Greetings and sincere thanks for your patronage and support. STRA has now grown to 9529 followers and members from 52 countries

(STRA Membership List)

We are glad to present you our latest edition of the newsletter. The newsletter showcases the associations of current and upcoming endeavors.

Conferences Held:

STRA has successfully organized following International conferences in the period of July 2019- September 2019:

2nd ICSTR Bali – International Conference on Science & Technology Research, 11-12 July 2019

2nd ICSTR Budapest – International Conference on Science & Technology Research, 11-12 July 2019

3rd ICSTR Bangkok – International Conference on Science & Technology Research, 26-27 July 2019

2nd ICSTR Mauritius – International Conference on Science & Technology Research, 21-22 July 2019

2nd ICSTR Barcelona – International Conference on Science & Technology Research, 01-02 August 2019

ICSTR Istanbul – International Conference on Science & Technology Research, 08-09 August 2019

2nd ICSTR Rome – International Conference on Science & Technology Research, 30-31 August 2019

2nd ICSTR London – International Conference on Science & Technology Research, 12-13 September 2019

2nd ICSTR Jakarta – International Conference on Science & Technology Research, 19-20 September 2019

ICSTR Hong Kong – International Conference on Science & Technology Research, 26-27 September 2019

(STRA Upcoming Conferences )

We thank all members, participants, and supporting organizations for making these conferences successful.

We will be glad to partner with your organization.

Please write to  convener@eurasiaresearch.info  for assistance.

Job Openings

STRA is searching for talented and energetic conference coordinators (part-time) who are working/ studying at the following locations:

Bali/Budapest/Mauritius/Bangkok/Barcelona/Istanbul/Rome/London/Jakarta/Hong Kong

It's a golden opportunity to be a part of our global team, to interact and associate with International academicians, display your leadership and organizing skills and earn handsome honorarium.

All interested and eligible candidates are requested to contact us with their CV, Photograph, Cover Letter on convener@eurasiaresearch.info

Eurasia Research International Conference began with opening remarks by Honourable Keynote speaker highlighting the main context on Teaching Issues. The main aim of this conference was:

The main aim of this conference was:

  • Advancement of academic knowledge through encouraging research activities.

  • To create a global community of scholars

  • Promotion of innovative thinking and ideas on a global platform

  • Making knowledge accessible to one and all using technology and ideas

  • Contributing to making the world a better place to live

Our worthy Keynote speakers open up the conference enlightening participants with their speech. Here is our list of keynote speakers who participated in our conference.

Sunil Kumar Ghosh, Department of Agril, Entomology, BCKV-Agriculture University, Kalyani, India

Engr. Rhea D. Makinano, Faculty of Industrial Engineering Department, Quezon City Polytechnic University, Quezon City, Philippines

Paulo Alexandre Gonçalves Piloto, Coordinator Professor, Department of Applied Mechanics - Polytechnic Institute of Bragança (IPB), Portugal

Prof.Dr.Emin Güzel, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Agricultural Machinery and Technologies Engineering, Çukurova University, Adana, Turkey

Dr. Liudmyla Gryzun, Phd & Second Doctoral Degree in Pedagogical Science

Dr. Anoja Priyadarshani Attanayake, Head and Senior Lecturer, Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, University of Ruhuna, Sri Lanka

Prof. Marek Matejun, Associate Professor, Department of Management, Vice-Dean of Science and International Cooperation at the Faculty of Management and Production Engineering, Lodz University of Technology, Poland

Diena Noviarini, Faculty Of Economics, State University of Jakarta, Indonesia

Engr. Marizen B. Contreras, Registered Professional Industrial Engineer, College of Engineering of University of Batangas, Batangas City, Philippines

Eurasia Research makes continuous efforts in transforming the lives of people around the world through education, application of research & innovative ideas. In order to Promote Young Researchers, Eurasia Research International conferences, Provides Young Research Scholarship in the form of a full Registration fee waiver to participate in such events. This gives immense encouragement to the researchers who have brilliant ideas to exhibit their research work on the International platform. Eurasia Research aims for promoting research and talent of scholars by giving the scholarship to 5 selected applicants for each conference.

Name of Person Attending: Aniket Raj Affiliation: Madan Mohan Malaviya University of Technology, U.P India

Paper Title: Fuel Cells: Contamination and Recent Advancements for its Stabilization

Abstract: A Fuel cell will soon be a very robust weapon to replace current highly carbonized fossil fuel generation of electricity by a more cleaner and efficient source of generation. The kind of electricity generation that is being used nowadays impacts the environment badly and contributes to Global Warming. In this context, Fuel Cells can prove to be significant in generation of cleaner energy. In addition to this, the fuel cell is more efficient as it doesn't operate as any heat engine; so not bound up to Carnot efficiency. Certain impurities either from the fuel that is being supplied or from the environment might result in undesirable reactions that cause fuel cell contamination. This becomes the reason for the dramatic drop in the performance of a fuel cell that has been observed from our working "Solar Hydrogen Plant"Fig A model. For testing and extending the life of a fuel cell by detecting and mitigating the cause of degradation, the researchers have passed the sample of distilled water and Ultra-pure water (Type I) after electrolysis through Ion Chromatographer, Total Dissolved Solid test, Electrical Conductivity Test, and pH test. The cell has been allowed to run in the lush green campus of Banaras Hindu University whose environmental conditions are considered to be less polluted in the Varanasi. Henceforth, the researchers also tested atmospheric situations and their effect on the fuel cells. The results of this paper will be useful in designing a device that can mitigate contamination and will ensure successful domestication of the Fuel cell. In this paper, various methods of obtaining pure hydrogen gas like Pressure Swing Adsorption (PSA), High & Low-Temperature Diffusion, Solvent absorption of CO and CO2 are also discussed. A new model of fuel cell installation is also discussed with an additional stage of hydrogen fuel filtration using PSA, TSA to supply hydrogen fuel with purity up to 99.8%.

Name of Person Attending: Haydar Kepekci

Affiliation: Engineering Faculty, Mechanical Engineering Department, Research Assistant, Beykent University, Istanbul, Turkey

Paper Title: Aeroacoustics Investigations of a Wind Turbine for Different Velocities, Using Computational Fluid Dynamics Software.

Abstract: The main reason why wind farms cannot be installed close to people's habitats is the noise pollution they generate while working. This paper reviews the flow field, which is examined on the 3D S809 blade profile using the SST k-ω turbulence model to compute the near-field flow of wind turbines. We attached the time-dependent flow field factors in Ffowcs-Williams and Hawkings (FW-H) equations as input, and Sound Pressure Level (SPL) was calculated for different velocities as 5.4 m/s and 7 m/s from the microphone placed in the computational domain to be analyzed. In this study, the NREL phase VI small scale (12%) baseline airfoil type was used. The acoustic results and torque values obtained from the analyzes were compared both with the data in the literature and among themselves. As a result; one of the calculated torque values was lower than the literature value. This difference may be since the analysis given in the literature contains a higher number of mesh cells. SolidWorks software was used for airfoil drawing, and Ansys Fluent software was used for analysis in this study. This paper includes a study which is on the near-field flow of wind turbine. The case of 3D S809 has approximately 2.2 million elements and solves compressible fluid flow with heat transfer using the SST turbulence model. The same mesh geometry was used in both analyses.

Name of Person Attending: Salman Azhar

Affiliation: Lahore University of Management Sciences (LUMS), Lahore, Pakistan

Paper Title: Evaluation of Homa: A Receiver Driven Transport Protocol for Data Centers

Abstract: This paper deals with the means of transferring energy from the input to the output. The buck-boost converter is considered as a maximum power point tracker or power equilibrium device used between the photovoltaic solar system and the battery by supplying the desired power for the stand-alone system requirements. The whole system energy is assigned by SLP190S-24 High-Efficiency Monocrystalline PV module based Perturb and Observe (P&O) MPPT algorithm with a selected lead-acid battery bank of 24 Volts. In order to achieve this energy transfer with minor energy losses, Buck-Boost converter with the switching frequency of 25Khz is designed for charging the lead battery applied in a standalone system. The MATLAB SIMULINK is used to validate the accuracy and effective the ess of the designed Buck-Boost converter simulation results. The result clings to the value of 99.72% for the combined Tracking and conversion efficiencies.

Keywords: Photovoltaic solar panel, Buck-Boost Converter, Perturb and Observe (P&O) algorithm, Battery.

Name of Person Attending: Adams Oluwadamilola Kemi

Affiliation: Department of Science and Technology, National Defense College, Abuja, Nigeria

Paper Title: Assessment of Agricultural Production and Vulnerability to Conflict among Rural Households in North

central Nigeria

Abstract: Conflict has been regarded as one of the major constraints to agricultural production in Nigeria. Farmers and cattle herdsmen conflict is one of the major conflicts that is predominant and it affect rural households in Nasarawa State. This study was therefore designed to identify the conflict experiences of farmers; examine the vulnerability of rural households to conflict; assess the impact of rural households’ vulnerability to conflict on agricultural production, and determine coping strategies area to conflict situations among farmers.

Data used for this study were obtained from a total of 179 households through a three-stage sampling technique. The first stage was the purposive selection of 10 crisis prone local government areas. The second stage was the selection of one village each from each crisis-prone local government areas. The third stage was a random selection of 25 households. Major tools of analysis for this study included descriptive statistics, vulnerability index, correlation analysis, likert-type scale and step wise regression.

The majority of rural households have agriculture as their major source of income (96.09%). All rural households have experienced conflict at one point in time during the time frame of the study. Farmer/herdsmen conflict was experienced by 94.41% of the households. Ethnoreligious was experienced by 36.31% of the respondent while communal clashes were experienced by 3.35% of the respondent thereby revealing that the most experienced conflict is the farmer/herdsmen conflict which occurred on an average of 3 times over a period of five years. Farming households have a conflict vulnerability index of between 58 and 63%. Farming households had a loss of 2467.25 Kg (grain eq.) which constitutes 36% of total output per annum to conflict, the coping strategies adopted by the rural household during conflict included relying on less preferred food as first and borrowing of food as fifth. Correlation analysis also revealed that 100% increase in output will lead to 16% increase in vulnerability to conflict among rural households.

It can therefore be concluded that rural households in Nasarawa State are vulnerable to conflict. It is therefore recommended that farmers should be trained and supported on the use of improved varieties to increase yield without increasing the size of land so as to avoid vulnerability to conflict. Besides, there is the need for herdsmen to adopt better ways of livestock management.

Keywords: Agricultural Production, Vulnerability, Conflict, Rural Households

In each, Eurasia International Conference, Best Paper Award is given to Best Researches. In the Scientific and Technical Research Association (STRA), the Best paper award is given to the participants with the best scholarly paper submitted and presented at the conference.

Name of Person Attending: Saranya Kumar

Affiliation: Faculty of Computer Science, Kumaraguru College of Technology, Coimbatore, India

Paper Title: Multi-model Drowsiness Detection System

Abstract: Accidents due to drowsiness are considered as silent killers. In India, accident rates are more than 20% and it is increasing year by year. Loss of consciousness causes changes in human body which leads to drowsiness. Detecting the drowsiness of drivers while driving is a big challenge. Serious accidents are mostly due to micro sleep and fatigue. Driver drowsiness detection is a safety technology that helps drivers to avoid accidents due to drowsiness. A system that automatically detects the drowsiness of the driver in real-time using computer vision is proposed. This multi-model technique makes use of Signal and Image Processing for effectively detecting drowsiness. The face is detected by using a camera and with the facial landmarks, an eye region is being extracted for calculating EAR (Eye Aspect Ratio) which would help in understanding the open and close movement of eyes. Added to that the EEG signals of the brain are captured using non-invasive technique and the processed signals are used to check the alertness of the driver. This multi-model drowsiness detection system detects the difference between blinking and drowsiness easily. The value which is being fetched from both the techniques is given as input to the alert system for providing caution to the drivers. The number of road accidents can be avoided and an alert and an alert message are sent.

Keywords: Accident, Drowsiness, EEG signal, EAR algorithm, Signal Processing, and Image processing.

Name of Person Attending: Muhammad Salman

Affiliation: Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Indonesia, Jakarta, Indonesia

Paper Title: Feasibility Study of CO2 Injection to Increase Oil Recovery In Y Field Using Extended Black Oil Simulation

Abstract: CO2 Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR) is the process of producing oil in tertiary phases commonly used after the phase of primary and secondary oil production (water flooding). The secondary oil production phase has been utilized in the past 10 years at Y Field to maintain pressure and increase oil recovery, yet oil recovery still at 20.9%. In an effort to increase oil recovery, with the production of 502 tons/day, CO2 gas venting from gas plant stripping CO2 removal and 25,000 ft far distances from the H platform is utilized as a source of CO2 injection into reservoir Y Field. With Minimum Miscible Pressure is 2350 psig and current reservoir pressure is 380 psig, CO2 injection will be in the immiscible condition in the reservoir. An extended Black Oil Simulator has been used to predict CO2 injection performance and provide an alternative solution to the compositional simulator. 3 scenario has been developing to run the simulation for 20 years. The simulation result obtained the highest CO2 injection is 1000 MCFD with cumulative oil production (Np) is 4.2 MMSTB and recovery factor (RF) is 9.65%. Required additional facilities such as 6” gas subsea pipeline 25000 ft length, and one 3-stage reciprocating compressor capable to compress CO2 gas from 2 psig into 600 psig. The economic value of this project is feasible to implemented since positive IRR 15.99 % and positive NPV 94,6 million US$ with 6 years Pay Back Periode.

Keywords: Extended Black Oil Simulation, CO2 Injection, Immiscible, Recovery Factor.

Name of Person Attending: Daniel Makala

Affiliation: Department of Computer Science, China University of Petroleum, China, Qingdao, China

Paper Title: Economic Forecasting With Deep Learning

Abstract: Crude oil plays a big role in determining the world economy today. An increase in the oil price leads to an increase in inflation and hence reduces economic growth. More to that from crude oil, different products are produced. Therefore a change in oil prices will direct affect these product leads. Because of this, it is very important to determine the future price of crude oil for better economy budgeting and future planning.

Knowing the future price of oil is very challenging. Investors, business people, and government need an accurate prediction for their decision making. The main challenge of predicting the price of crude oil is the instability of the price of crude oil. This non-linearity of the price data have made the prediction of oil price to be a very challenging task. Various studies have been conducted and different models have been suggested in how to overcome this issue.

In this paper, the study will use the deep Learning techniques to capture the behavior of the crude oil price with the comparison with other three techniques. The study will use Long Short Term Memory (LSTM) with comparison with Moving average (MA), linear regression (LR) and Auto regressive integrated moving Average (ARIMA). The study will use the data from West Texas Index Intermediate (WTI). The performance will be measured using RMSE and R square.

The expected result of this research is to prove that the deep learning model (LSTM) is the best in capturing nonlinear data for the aim of predicting the future. Also, the result shows how deep learning models can be used in economics.

Keywords: Forecasting, LSTM, Moving Average, Linear Regression, ARIMA

Name of Person Attending: Jianpeng Wang

Affiliation: College of Instrument Science and Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing, China

Paper Title: A Biomechanics-based Locomotion Controller Optimized by PSO

Abstract: Hill-type muscle models are commonly used in biomechanical simulations to predict passive and active muscle forces. In this work, we implement a hierarchical controller based on a Hill-type muscle force to simulate the real human walking motion. The lower control layer is based on neuro-physiologically muscle-reflex pathways to realize limb functions essential to legged systems in stance and swing. The higher control layer that adjusts the desired foot placements and selects the leg that is to transition into swing control during double support. All parameters of the controller are optimized by PSO. Using physics-based simulation, the optimized controller is exemplarily applied to biped movements. The result suggests that this controller achieves good locomotion across behaviors.

Keywords: Biomechanical, Motion Control, PSO

Name of Person Attending: Mahmut Unaldi

Affiliation: Department of Motor Vehicles and Transportation Technologies, Selcuk University, Konya, Turkey

Paper Title: The Hardness, Density, Porosity and Wear Rate Features of Brake Pads Produced by Miscanthus as Reinforcement and Cashew as Lubricant

Abstract: The five main components constituting the brake pads are: reinforcement, lubricant, abrasive, filler and binder. Miscanthus as reinforcement, cashew as a lubricant, alumina as abrasive, calcite as filler, and phenolic resin as binder were used to produce composite ecological brake pad samples. Components and mixing ratios of them affect all properties of the composite materials. To determine the effect of ecological brake pad ingredients on the porosity, hardness, density, and wear rate properties the Taguchi method was utilized. The miscanthus, cashew, alumina and phenolic resin ingredients were selected as the factors according to the Taguchi method. Factors were selected as four levels and samples brake pad samples were produced in accordance with L16(44) Taguchi orthogonal array design.

As a result of this study, the brake pad samples’ features such as density, hardness, porosity and wear rate were determined that were affected more by miscanthus and phenolic resin proportions in the mixture. According to the test results, the hardness and density values of the samples decreased, and the porosity and wear rate values increased as the reinforcement ratio increased. The hardness and density features of the samples were significantly affected by the reinforcement and binder ingredients ratios in brake pad samples. The lubricant and abrasive component ratios of the samples significantly affected the porosity feature.

Name of Person Attending: Salman Azhar

Affiliation: Lahore University of Management Sciences (LUMS), Lahore, Pakistan

Paper Title: Evaluation of Homa: A Receiver Driven Transport Protocol for Data Centers

Abstract: This paper deals with the means of transferring energy from the input to the output. The buck-boost converter is considered as a maximum power point tracker or power equilibrium device used between the photovoltaic solar system and the battery by supplying the desired power for the stand-alone system requirements. The whole system energy is assigned by SLP190S-24 High-Efficiency Monocrystalline PV module based Perturb and Observe (P&O) MPPT algorithm with a selected lead-acid battery bank of 24 Volts. In order to achieve this energy transfer with minor energy losses, the Buck-Boost converter with the switching frequency of 25Khz is designed for charging the lead battery applied in a standalone system. The MATLAB SIMULINK is used to validate the accuracy and effectiveness of the designed Buck-Boost converter simulation results. The result clings to the value of 99.72% for the combined Tracking and conversion efficiencies.

Keywords: Photovoltaic solar panel, Buck-Boost Converter, Perturb and Observe (P&O) algorithm, Battery.

Name of Person Attending: Samya Hachemi

Affiliation: Department of Civil Engineering and Hydraulic, University Mohamed Khider, Algeria

Paper Title: Residual properties of Brick Aggregate Concrete subjected to elevated temperature

Abstract: This paper presents an experimental investigation of high temperatures applied to normal and high-performance concrete made with natural coarse aggregates. The experimental results of physical and mechanical properties were compared with those obtained with recycled brick aggregates produced by replacing 30% of natural coarse aggregates by recycled brick aggregates. The following parameters: compressive strength, concrete mass loss, apparent density, and water porosity were examined in this experiment. The results show that concrete could be produced by using recycled brick aggregates and reveals that at high temperatures recycled aggregate concrete performed similar or even better than natural aggregate concrete.

Key-words: High temperature, Compressive strength, Mass loss, Recycled brick aggregate.

Name of Person Attending: Irem Gulfem Albayrak

Affiliation: Faculty of Engineering and Natural Sciences, Molecular Biology and Genetics Department, Uskudar University, Istanbul, Turkey

Paper Title: Regulation of Gene Expression by miRNAs and Their Potential Role in Early Diagnosis of Various Diseases

Abstract: MicroRNAs (miRNAs), small and non-coding endogenous RNAs approximately 22 nucleotides in length, have been known to regulate approximately 30 % of human gene expression at the post-transcriptional and translational levels. Recent studies have shown that miRNAs have unique expression profiles in cells of the innate and adaptive immune systems and have pivotal roles in the regulation of both cell development and function. In this respect, miRNA-mediated gene expression is considered an important and indispensable mechanism.

miRNA genes are transcribed by either RNA polymerase II or RNA polymerase III into primary miRNA transcripts (prior-miRNA). Both RNA polymerases are regulated differently and recognize specific promoter and terminator elements, facilitating a wide variety of regulatory options. The expression of selected miRNAs is under the control of transcription factors or depends on the methylation of their promoter sequences. In addition, it has been shown that each miRNA located in the same genomic cluster can be transcribed and regulated independently. However, controls of miRNA transcription steps are not necessarily universal.

miRNAs result in inhibition of protein translation, degradation of mRNA and activation of protein translation, and have been shown to play important regulatory roles in various biological and pathological processes.

Working with both disease-related proteins and associated miRNAs can provide more reliable molecular targets for understanding and treating the molecular mechanism of the disease.

Abnormal expression of miRNAs based on their important role in human physiology may lead to the development of a variety of diseases such as cancer, cardiovascular disorders, schizophrenia, musculoskeletal disorders, lung diseases, endometriosis, preeclampsia, infertility and developmental disorders.

In this study, the mechanism of miRNAs and their roles in the cell and their potential roles in early diagnosis of various diseases are discussed.

Keywords: miRNA, early diagnosis, gene expression.

Name of Person Attending: Nilay Yonet

Affiliation: Faculty of Engineering and Natural Sciences, Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Uskudar University, Istanbul, Turkey

Paper Title: The Effects of Antioxidant Molecules on in vitro Neurodegeneration Model of Human Neuroblastoma (SH-SY5Y)

Cell Line

Abstract: Neurodegeneration is the progressive and irreversible damage to the nervous system resulting in neuronal loss leading to disruption of motor and cognitive functions. The most common causes of neurodegeneration are deterioration of structure and function of neurons, effects of genetic factors and aging. Alzheimer's Disease (AD) is one of the neurodegenerative diseases which is a common disease in our country and in the world. The main pathological symptoms of AD are the presence of senile plaques, neurofibrillary tangles and neuronal loss in the brain. AD patients often experience progressive cognitive impairments, including memory loss, language skills, focus, and reasoning, and no permanent treatment has been found yet.

Oxidative stress plays an important role in the formation of neurodegenerative diseases which is induced by an unstable redox state including an excessive amount of reactive oxygen or dysfunction of the antioxidant system. In this study, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) which is one of the reactive oxygen species, was used to accelerate oxidative stress and thus neurodegeneration on human neuroblastoma (SH-SY5Y) cell line. Then, three molecules as quercetin, gallic acid, and trans-anethole, with antioxidant property, were tested on these cells for their effects on neurodegeneration by MTT test.

As the result of the study, gallic acid (10µg/mL and 50µg/mL) and trans-anethole (10µg/mL and 500µg/mL) exhibit low proliferative effect; quercetin did not give inducing or reducing effect on neurodegeneration, only its highest dose (500µg/mL) showed low cytotoxic effect. Gene expressions and signal transductions of two effective molecules as gallic acid and trans-anethole were analyzed to understand their effect mechanisms. Further studies for the effects of different antioxidant molecules would be performed.

Keywords: Alzheimer's Disease (AD), neurodegeneration, oxidative stress, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), antioxidant molecules

Name of Person Attending: Suparman Suparman

Affiliation: Department of Mathematics Education, University of Ahmad Dahlan, Indonesia

Paper Title: Reversible Jump MCMC to Estimate a Piecewise Constant Model with Gamma Multiplicative Noise

Abstract: Piecewise constant is a mathematical model that is often used to model data in various fields. Gamma multiplicative noise or gamma additive noise can be added in a constant piecewise model. This study aims to estimate a constant piecewise model that has gamma multiplicative noise. The estimation of the constant piecewise model is carried out in the Bayesian framework. The prior distribution for the number of constant models, the location of the change in the constant model, the height of the constant model, and the noise variance selected. This prior distribution is combined with the probability function of the data to get the posterior distribution. The Bayes estimator for the number of constant models, the location of the change in the constant model, the height of the constant model, and the noise variance are estimated based on the posterior distribution. The Bayes estimator cannot be formulated explicitly because the number of constant models is a parameter. The reversible jump method of the Monte Carlo Markov Chain (MCMC) is proposed to determine the Bayes estimator. This study resulted in estimating the parameters of a constant piecewise model with gamma multiplicative noise. This method can be used to estimate a constant piecewise model that has gamma multiplicative noise even though the number of constant models is unknown.

Keywords: Bayes estimation, Piecewise constant model, Reversible jump MCMC

Name of Person Attending: Jacek Hunicz

Affiliation: Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Lublin University of Technology, Poland

Paper Title: Real-time monitoring and energy split optimization of a hybrid fuel-cell-battery city bus

Abstract: This paper evaluates the energy consumption of a hybrid fuel-cell-battery electric city bus. The bus is powered by two 110 kW synchronous electric motors integrated with a rear axle. The energy storage system is based on a li-ion battery pack with 75.5 kWh capacity. Two, 30 kW each, fuel-cell modules generate energy on-board from 33 kg of hydrogen stored in metal-polymer tanks under 350 bar pressure. This configuration enables continuous operation on a distance of approximately 400 km without recharging the battery or refilling of hydrogen. This study provides an in-depth analysis of energy consumption under supervised real-world conditions. The operation data is collected using a fleet management system and evaluated in the context of charging/filling infrastructure as well as in the context of on-board energy system optimization. Depending on the availability of hydrogen and capacity of the electrical network both the infrastructure and the fleet configuration can be tailored to minimize not only energy consumption but also the total cost of ownership. In the current study measurement data were used to validate the energy consumption model. The model enabled comparison of different configurations of on-board energy storage structure in terms of fuel-cell/battery capacities and select optimal solution for the given operating conditions and available infrastructure.

Keywords: City Bus, Electric Vehicle, Hydrogen, Fuel-Cell, Energy Consumption

Matter: International Journal of Science & Technology

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