Eurasia Research Quarterly Newsletter: TERA (July 2019- September 2019)
Updated: Oct 22, 2019
Dear TERA Members,
Greetings and sincere thanks for your patronage and support. TERA has now grown to 17442
followers and members from 62 countries.
We are glad to present you our latest edition of the newsletter. The newsletter showcases the associations of current and upcoming endeavors.
TERA has successfully organized following International conferences in the period of July- September 2019:
We thank all members, participants, and supporting organizations for making these conferences successful.
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TERA is searching for talented and energetic conference coordinators (part-time) who are working/ studying at the following locations:
Bali/ Budapest/Mauritius/Bangkok/Barcelona/Istanbul/Rome/London/Jakarta/Hong Kong
It's a golden opportunity to be a part of our global team, to interact and associate with International academicians, display your leadership and organizing skills and earn handsome honorarium.
All interested and eligible candidates are requested to contact us with their CV, Photograph, Cover Letter on firstname.lastname@example.org
Eurasia Research International Conference began with opening remarks by Honourable Keynote speaker highlighting the main context on Teaching Issues. The main aim of this conference was:
Advancement of Research and Innovative ideas through conference, workshops, seminars, and publications
Fostering a global community based on research and knowledge
Fostering innovation and ideas through research-based activities
Global dissemination of ideas and research through the use of technology
Working towards world peace and community development
Our worthy Keynote speakers open up the conference enlightening participants with their speech. Here is the list of keynote speakers who participated in our conference.
Eurasia Research makes continuous efforts in transforming the lives of people around the world through education, application of research & innovative ideas. In order to Promote Young Researchers, Eurasia Research International conferences, Provides Young Research Scholarship in the form of a full Registration fee waiver to participate in such events. This gives immense encouragement to the researchers who have brilliant ideas to exhibit their research work on the International platform. Eurasia Research aims for promoting research and talent of scholars by giving the scholarship to 5 selected applicants for each conference. Eurasia Research makes continuous efforts in transforming the lives of people around the world through education, application of research & innovative ideas. In order to Promote Young Researchers, Eurasia Research International conferences, Provides Young Research Scholarship in the form of a full Registration fee waiver to participate in such events. This gives immense encouragement to the researchers who have brilliant ideas to exhibit their research work on the International platform. Eurasia Research aims for promoting research and talent of scholars by giving the scholarship to 5 selected applicants for each conference.
In each, Eurasia International Conference, Best Paper Award is given to Best Researches. In the Teaching and Education Research Association (TERA), the Best paper award is given to the participants with the best scholarly paper submitted and presented at the conference.
Name of delegate: Jose Elmer Oficiar
Affiliation: Teacher Education, University of Mindanao Tagum College, Philippines
Paper Title: Language of Homosexuality: A Morpho-Semantic Analysis
Abstract: The qualitative research ventured on revealing the reasons for using gay lingo in the academic community and analyzing its unique linguistic features. In identifying the linguistic features of gay lingo, the researcher analyzed the data taken from the informants from their simulation and list of gay words. These data were treated using morpho-semantic analysis: the Morphological Analysis revealed patterns of structural formations in gay words; the Semantic Analysis revealed the semantic processes on the meanings of gay words. The study employed the phenomenological design conducted in 3 College institutions in Tagum City. The participants of the study were the college students particularly homosexuals. The investigation involved 28 gay participants, whose backgrounds were based on the school they attend to. The results of the study revealed ideas that concretized the reason for using gay lingo in the informants’ respective schools. The following themes emerged during the interview: Learning Gay Lingo from Friends, Sex Talks, Making Gossips, Sexual Identity, and Sense of Security. On the analyses of linguistic features of gay lingo, it revealed the following: the Morphological Analysis revealed patterns of formation in gay words. These patterns of gay lingo are as follows; clipping with affixation, variety formation, straight word derivation, popular word derivation, gay word affixation, foreign-sounding, and gay word expressions. In the Semantic Analysis, it revealed the semantic processes on the meanings of gay words. These processes in their semantic formation are as follows; corporal derivation, mutual comprehension, and variety synonymy.
Keywords: Applied Linguistics, Morpho-Semantic, Gay Lingo, Homosexuality, Philippines.
Name of delegate: Cherly C. Cordova
Affiliation: Secondary education Department, College of Education of Central Mindanao University, Maramag, Bukidnon, Philippines
Paper Title: No Assignment Policy: A Boon Or A Bane
Abstract: Homework or assignment is widely known as an educational activity, which primary
the purpose is to help the students improve their performances however some studies showed that
assignment has a negative impact on students’ social lives and more assignment increases stress level and physical problems. In the Philippines, a “No Homework Policy” during weekends for all student levels was issued by President Rodrigo R. Duterte. This study explores the possible effect of having and not having assignments on weekends on the transmuted mean scores and performance of high school students. The study was conducted at Central Mindanao University Laboratory High School (CMULHS), in Maramag, Bukidnon using two sections of Grade 11 students. The data were treated using descriptive statistics. ANCOVA was used to determine if a significant difference exists. The result of the study reveals that class with assignments had higher transmuted mean scores as compared to those without assignments. Increased performance from midterm to final term was noted in the with assignment group however, there is no significant difference in the performance of the students with and without assignments. This shows that giving assignments on weekends is a boon to students’ performance.
Keywords: homework/assignment, mean score, performance.
Name of delegate: Gamze Caliskan
Affiliation: School of Foreign Languages, Anadolu University, Eskisehir, Turkey
Paper Title: Teachers Beliefs and Practices on Using L1 in Turkish EFL Classrooms
Abstract: Although there has been an ongoing debate on whether L1 should have a room or not in language classrooms, the use of L1 in EFL classrooms is a common practice in various contexts. This present study aimed at investigating Turkish EFL teachers’ use of L1 in their classroom practices in the specific context of Anadolu University School of Foreign Languages (AUSFL). Hence, the study adopting qualitative research design examined when and why teachers use L1 and uncovered teachers’ real thoughts about the instances of L1 use. For these purposes, data were collected through an open-ended questionnaire (N=30), video recordings of eight class hours (N=2) and stimulated recall data procedure (N=2). The findings indicated that teachers give similar reasons for the use of L1 in their classroom practices. Nevertheless, the classroom observations and stimulated recall data revealed that teachers’ use of L1 varies in terms of amount and purposes. Therefore, it can be suggested that the reasons for the use of L1 should be examined in detail to be able to maximize the use of L2. All in all, this in-depth research may provide more insights into similar contexts and contribute to the subject area.
Name of delegate: Kalsang Wangdu
Affiliation: Department of Teacher Education, Faculty of Education, University of Turku, Turku, Finland
Paper Title: Education of the Tibetan refugees in India: Reimagining refugee-host relationships and implications for
Abstract: This paper examines the system of education developed by the Tibetan refugees in India. With the support of the Indian Government, the Tibetan refugees have set up separate schools for their children and developed a culturally-relevant curriculum. While remaining within the framework of the Indian Board of Education, the Tibetan refugee schools have taken advantage of the flexibilities Indian system of education offers to include curricular contents relevant to Tibetan children. This has enabled them to maintain their distinctive cultural identity while integrating into the mainstream Indian society. By employing critical discourse analysis of the Tibetan history curriculum and textbooks, this study analyzes the key features of culturally-relevant education developed by the Tibetan refugees in India, and the role it plays in engendering a collective Tibetan national and cultural identity. It also examines the role of the positive refugee-host relationship between the Tibetan refugees and the Indian government. As opposed to the current trends of seeing refugees as ‘problem’, the Indian Government embraced the Tibetan refugees as potential political and cultural allies. This paper argues that the reimagining of refugees by the host nation can play an important role in enabling refugees to thrive and contribute to the host nation reciprocally.
Keywords: Multicultural education; refugee education; culturally-relevant education
Name of delegate: Dr. Wang Lixun
Affiliation: Department of Linguistics and Modern Language Studies, Faculty of Humanities, The Education University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong SAR, China
Paper Title: Code-Switching and Code-Mixing in Trilingual Education in Hong Kong: A Case Study
Abstract: Classroom instructions in Hong Kong secondary school context often involves a "mixed-code", with textbooks in English and oral instruction in Cantonese (A variety of spoken Chinese) or a Cantonese/English mix. This mixed-code instruction has been practiced in Hong Kong classroom teaching for many years. However, Hong Kong’s policy-making body, the Education Commission, considered this as the principal cause of students’ apparently unsatisfactory levels of English and Chinese. Worried about the increasing use of mixed code in secondary schools, the Government adopted the policy of ‘mother-tongue teaching’ to encourage Chinese-medium instruction to minimize mixed-code teaching. The ‘mother-tongue’ policy and the “trilingual and biliterate” policy adopted by the Hong Kong SAR government after the 1997 handover is two of the most significant issues in terms of controversy and impact. The latter policy aims to help Hongkongers to become bi-literate in written Chinese and English, and trilingual in Cantonese, Putonghua and spoken English. In this paper, an overview of the historical background of the Hong Kong language polices will be introduced. Secondly, the role of code-switching and code-mixing in classroom teaching will be discussed by illustrating examples from a case study in a Hong Kong secondary school. Finally, the reasons for using mixed code and its impact on student learning will be analyzed and discussed. A number of research methods were employed: questionnaire survey, student focus group interviews and classroom discourse analysis. The research findings show that students in the case study school found code-switching/code-mixing in different subjects useful for their language development in general even though the school language policy does not encourage the use of mixed code in teaching. It is hoped that this study can contribute to the literature on code-switching/code-mixing in the multilingual education context.
Keywords: Code-mixing, Code-switching, Mother-tongue teaching, biliterate and trilingual, Hong Kong
Name of delegate: Mustapha Lemu Ibrahim
Affiliation: Department of In-service Programmes, Niger State Teacher Professional Development Institute, Minna, Nigeria
Paper Title: Establishment of NSTPDI, MINNA, Nigeria: Experiences, Achievements and A Peek Into The Future
Abstract: The paper is set within the context of the existing scenario of inadequate and poor quality teachers especially at the Basic Education level in Nigeria. It addresses the challenges of teacher demand and supply from a very innovative point of view by creating a new pathway of entry into the teaching profession through the provision of a contemporary 21st century alternative to the Grade II Teacher qualification that was shelved in 1978 on the one hand and institutionalizing school-based Continuous Teacher Professional Development on the other. The paper presents the key role being played by the newly established Niger State Teacher Professional Development Institute (NSTPDI) in charting this new course in the effort to strengthen the preparation of teachers, enhance the quality of serving teachers and introduce a new dimension of professional licensing of teachers at the State level of a federated Nigeria. While documenting the progress and achievements recorded by the Institute, the paper also highlights the various challenges confronting the establishment of the Institute from the drawing board (concept) to its current level of implementation (reality). As it maps its way into the future, the Institute considers the achievement of global linkage a necessity of topmost priority. It looks forward, through specific steps presented in this paper, to connect to the global field of Teacher Professional Development through mutually beneficial interaction and ideational exchanges with experts of repute as well as collaboration and linkages with credible institutions and organizations.
Name of delegate: Todd Hull
Affiliation: Department of English, Hankuk University of Foreign Studies, Seoul, South Korea
Paper Title: Communicative testing in the EFL classroom
Abstract: While the communicative approach has come to predominate in EFL classrooms around the world, its logical corollary—communicative testing—has not followed suit as it seems it should have. Instead, teachers who use the communicative approach in their regular classes often revert to older styles of testing when it comes time for midterms and finals. This paper will define what a communicative test is and why it is a better option than older forms of testing—especially in communicative classrooms, where it is a natural partner. It will then discuss how to assess communicative tests. It will also discuss how communicative testing can be a part of a variety of learning environments Finally, it will give concrete examples of communicative tests that can be used in EFL classrooms from English for Specific Purposes to Content-based Instruction—and even in classrooms that are constrained by administrative mandates so as not to be primarily communicative—demonstrating that communicative testing can be profitably administered in almost any learning environment.
Name of delegate: Arunabha Bandyopadhyay
Affiliation: Manipal School of Architecture and Planning, Manipal Academy of Higher Education, Manipal, India
Paper Title: Design considerations to enhance Learning Environment in Schools
Abstract: The built environment that humans live in, affects them in their cognitive, emotional and social terms. Every building has a specific purpose to serve. School buildings being the vital infrastructure to impart education needs to be designed in ways that provide a high-quality learning environment. This paper explores the several architectural or interior design considerations for schools which may impact the learning ability, productivity, and creativity of the students. This study comprises of exploratory research from several sources, making an attempt to find out the architectural aspects necessary to be considered while designing schools. Additionally, surveys and experiments have been conducted in the context of schools in India, to deduce a set of design guidelines for classrooms and other important areas in a school for a better learning experience of the users.
Keywords: Learning Environment, Design guidelines, School design, Impact of architecture on behavior.
Name of delegate: Heba Mansour
Affiliation: Art Education Department, Faculty of Education, Sultan Qaboos University, Muscat Oman
Paper Title: The Use of Physical Phenomenon as an Innovative Source in Art Education
Abstract: It is undoubtedly that there is a reciprocity relationship between the different sciences and fields of knowledge. The relation between art and science is one that extends ancient times since both of them use search and experimentation methods in pursuit of reaching the best results and satisfactory solutions which makes them in continuous development. Likewise, Art education as one of the fields of knowledge that draws its references from all that is neoteric whether it is nature, heritage or other sciences. The idea of integration between art and science prompts on finding innovative ways towards creativity, because whenever the sources behind the design were of a scientific nature, the higher the visual connotations are closer to perception and mental receptivity. Hence, researchers are trying to create new experimental approaches through the study and analysis of some physical phenomena, such as energy, frequency and vibration, which produces precise and perfect artistic forms in harmonious rhythms and in accordance with formalized geometric and mathematical relations of scientific origin that can be used by art students to create innovative design works as intellectual starting points, can be consulted and relied on as technical references, with a formal logic, and mental legitimation, which contributes to the enrichment of the aesthetic values of the artwork. So, this study aims to take advantage of some physical phenomena such as energy and frequency and vibration and its formal output as an innovative source in teaching arts
Keywords: Physical phenomena - Formal regulation - Surface values, Art Education
Name of delegate: Saber Abou El Fadl
Affiliation: Language Contact in Education: Theory and Pedagogy, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Morocco
Paper Title: A Consideration of the Materials of Teaching Past Tenses in English Grammar Course Books
Abstract: The study examined 30 grammar course books and compared their patterns of presenting the grammatical structures of past tenses in terms of form and meaning across the different target levels of learners (Beginners to advanced). My focus in this study, however, is on the nature of materials that are provided by language developers for teaching English past tenses. Though my concern is to enable the foreign language teachers to have a better understanding of the pedagogical implications of the existing grammar material, the study also figures out the thinking underlying the use of these materials in context and how it is sequenced with respect to each learner’s level. Furthermore, there is a central emphasis on the learning activities which are suggested to teach English past tenses. In the line with the previous studies, language developers rely immensely on the implications of SLA research to answer the real questions of foreign language teaching that can be applied to be embedded in the grammar course books, by raising the learners’ consciousness of certain grammatical forms. The study also will give an account of how these implications help the EFL learners to raise their awareness of the past tenses morphology as well as to maximize their potential to notice the form and function of the target structures. To sum up, this study will give an overview of the basic constituents that made the sequences of the course books, and it will provide a detailed account of how the learners are engaged in the process of learning through the controlled, semi-free and free activities.
Key Words: Language awareness, language development, language acquisition, language teaching materials, coursebook
Name of delegate: Ko Woo Yew
Affiliation: Department of Fine Arts, SMK Methodist Sibu, Sarawak, Malaysia, Minister of Education Malaysia, Sibu, Sarawak, Malaysia
Paper Title: Improving U6a3 Students Achievement in STPM Visual Arts Paper 2 through the Constructivism Learning
Abstract: This research is carried out to overcome the problems faced by U6A3 students in Visual Arts Paper 2. The target respondents consist of 11 U6A3 students who would sit for the Visual Arts papers in STPM. The research aims to look into the effectiveness of the constructivism learning approach in helping students excel in Visual Arts Paper 2. The research methodology comprises quantitative pre and post-tests, questionnaires, as well as qualitative observation. According to the survey carried out, students face problems in drawing as well as creating tones and shades due to a lack of confidence and interest. From the observation, the improvised teaching and more conducive learning atmosphere as well as with the help of innovative teaching aids (tone explorer) have led to a change of students’ attitude and they become more interested in the subject. The research findings show a significant increase in the post-test result. The number of students obtaining an A increases to 36.37 percent, whereas none of the students obtain C and below, from previously 45.45 percent. It also reaps an encouraging result in the actual STPM, with 64.64 percent obtaining an A.
Name of delegate: William Sharpton
Affiliation: Office of Academic Affairs, The University of New Orleans, Louisiana, USA
Paper Title: Supporting faculty to incorporate global learning and global engagement in the general education curriculum
Abstract: This study presents the work of a public, urban, research university to incorporate global learning and global engagement in the general education curriculum. This work was completed as part of the Quality Enhancement Plan (QEP) associated with the accreditation requirements for the institution. A steering committee composed of multiple faculty and campus leadership personnel developed a set of strategies to improve student learning outcomes addressing global learning and engagement. Strategies implemented included adopting a definition of global learning and engagement, creating incentives and supports for faculty to pilot new global learning and engagement opportunities in general education classes, adopting a set of rubrics to measure student learning outcomes, incorporating opportunities to address global issues across general education courses, supporting initiatives to address global learning and engagement in non-credit student activities and disseminating results and strategies associated with the initiative. Initial findings are presented in three categories: 1) impact data in terms of participation, 2) changes in rubric scores for students enrolled in pilot coursework, and 3) successes and presenting issues reported by participating, faculty. The future scope of this work largely focuses on the need to revise the student learning outcomes for the general education component of undergraduate degree programs and to adopt robust strategies to sustain global learning and engagement opportunities on a long term basis.
Name of delegate: Rebecca Ong
Affiliation: Department of English, The Hang Seng University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China
Paper Title: Language Learning Strategy Use in English for Academic Purposes (EAP) context
Abstract: The monolithic nature and effectiveness of language learning strategies (LLS) have long been investigated in English language acquisition. With the rise of student-centeredness and learning autonomy, research into language teaching can no longer be independent of language learning. As acquiring knowledge, proficiency, skills, and fluency in English are regarded as a prerequisite for undergraduate students, the development of academic writing courses will become even more important. This study aims at investigating the relationship between the use of LLS and students’ gender and their major discipline in an English for Academic Purposes (EAP) context. To investigate language learning strategies used by freshmen at a university in Hong Kong, a total of about 70 students completed a questionnaire adapted from Oxford’s (1990) Strategy Inventory for Language Learning (SILL). A follow-up interview with a small group of students and in-class observation will also be adopted as the instruments to collect the data. The results of data analysis will indicate the categories of learning strategies EAP students employ, the frequency of use and the choice of individual LLS. Pedagogical implications of these findings will also be examined in relation to Strategy-based Instruction (SBI) and teaching and learning in the EAP context.
Name of delegate: Mehmet Fatih Ozmantar
Affiliation: Department of Mathematics and Science Education, University of Gaziantep, Gaziantep, Turkey
Paper Title: Ethical Dimension of Mathematics Teachers Instructional Actions and Decisions
Abstract: The aim of this study is to explain the ethical dimension of instructional decisions and actions of mathematics teachers. The research was designed as a multiple case study. Three mathematics teachers working at the secondary level participated in the study. Data were collected through semi-structured interviews with teachers. In the determination of the content of the interviews, different mathematics teachers’ opinions were gathered, classroom observations were made, grade sheets and teacher exam papers were examined. The data were subjected to content analysis. As a result of the analysis, it is observed that teachers take certain actions with ethical considerations, which at times results in ethical tensions. The analysis also indicated that ethical tensions could be explained and examined through four distinctive conceptions: ethical uncertainty, ethical dilemma, ethical conflict, and ethical distress. These theoretical conceptions have been explained with examples and their functions and potentials for teacher actions and decisions were exemplified with regard to mathematics instruction. Our observations convinced us that it would be misleading to consider teachers’ instructional decisions independent of ethical tensions and such considerations run the risk of reducing mathematical instruction to a mere pedagogical practice.
Keywords: ethics, ethical tension, mathematics instruction, instructional decision
Name of delegate: Punsisi Somaratne
Affiliation: Computer Science and Creative Technologies, the University of the West of England, United Kingdom
Paper Title: Using 3D Virtual Activities to Conduct Collaborative Work
Abstract: Collaborative work can be conducted either in a classroom environment or in a computer-supported environment. The virtual world is one such computer-supported environment that is used to conduct group activities. In this study, we explore students’ experiences in 3D virtual group activities. We conducted this study in two steps; in the first step, we explored students’ experiences in classroom collaboration. After that, in the second step, we explored students’ experiences in virtual collaboration. Finally, we compared the results gathered from the questionnaire and found that students had a positive attitude about virtual collaboration compared to classroom collaboration. Moreover, we analyzed the interview data qualitatively and identified students’ views about classroom group work and virtual group work. We conducted this study with the first-year Information Technology students in a Sri Lankan higher education institute.
Key Words: Virtual World, Collaboration, Virtual Activity, Higher Education, Sri Lankan
Name of delegate: Amina Ali Suwaid
Affiliation: Integrated Science Department, Federal College of Education, Kano. Nigeria
Paper Title: Testing the Effect of Activity-Based Teaching Strategies in the Suppression of Stage Fright in Pre Service science teachers.
Abstract: Many science education researchers are concerned with the benefits associated with various teaching methods in the dissemination of knowledge. In science teacher training it is perceived that creative teaching methods can be employed to produce science teachers with adequate content knowledge alongside desired teaching methods. To this effect in Nigeria Nigerian Integrated Science Teacher Education Project (NISTEP) suggested that science teacher education reform should stress the use of the Activity-Based method as the main method of teacher training. In this paper it is conceived that enshrined in the proposed Activity-based teaching method are more benefits than the facilitation of learning and desired pedagogical skills. The psychological state of the teacher like stage fright is viewed as a factor that can affect the teachers’ proficiency. The potential of Activity-based teaching method in treating this factor is investigated and it was deduced that indeed the method can be employed as a tool for the total formation of a science teacher as it played a great role in suppressing signs of stage fright like sudden loss of idea, stammering, dizziness, and being shaky in front of the audience. It is suggested that science teachers and teacher trainers should broaden the goals of using the Activity-based teaching method to encompass curtailing such psychological problems that are identified to inhibit good delivery despite the possession of good knowledge of science concept and teaching skill.
Name of delegate: Gawie Schlebusch
Affiliation: Department of Post Graduate Studies Education, Faculty of Humanities, Central University of Technology, Free State, Welkom, South Africa
Paper Title: Fundraising as a tool to generate income for Section 21 no-fee schools in South Africa
Abstract: Education is not only one of the most important public services in both developed and developing countries, but it is also one of the most expensive. Schools receive only limited resources from the government as most of the national education budget allocation is used for educators’ salaries. Fundraising is an important aspect for all schools in order to supplement funding received from the state. Schools need sufficient funding in order to effectively support teaching and learning and other school activities. Schools in South Africa are unable to rely on financial resources derived directly from the government and are increasingly dependent on the resources from their environment. SGBs must meet their legal obligation to supplement resources supplied by the state by means of fundraising.
The design followed in this study is qualitative in nature. The data collection instrument was open-ended questionnaires to gather information from 15 SGB chairpersons and 15 school principals of Section 21 no-fee secondary schools in three of the five education districts of the Free State Province. Findings indicate that schools face various problems regarding fundraising because of a lack of knowledge, expertise, and skills regarding such matters. A dire need for sustainable fundraising was expressed in order to enhance the quality of teaching and learning.
Name of delegate: Joanne Blannin
Affiliation: Melbourne Graduate School of Education, The University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Australia
Paper Title: Teacher Learning in Contemporary Schools: A qualitative investigation of teacher currency and professional learning
Abstract: This paper reports on how teachers engage in professional learning to maintain currency in their teaching practices. Drawing on data from seven schools and 18 teachers within Victoria, Australia, this research sought to understand the factors that supported the development of teachers’ collective efficacy when learning and applying new pedagogical skills. This qualitative research engaged with participants iteratively to generate and discuss emerging themes. Positioning theory (PT) (Harré, 1999) informed the analysis of the data and framed participants as co-creators of the research. PT provided a lens through which to make sense of the data and to better understand the ways that teachers were socially positioned as learners in their school contexts. Findings suggest that teams of teachers worked and learned effectively together when there were clear structures and mechanisms for supporting collaborative practices developed and modeled from the school leaders. These structures had been informally constructed within the team of teachers, without directives from school leaders. This research has identified teacher learning in today’s schools as changing and increasingly collaborative, and positions teachers as pro-active seekers of skills and opportunities within their specific learning environments. This research offers schools and system leaders deeper insight into how to build and support effective learning teams through the support and acknowledgment of unofficial team learning and activities. This is a unique perspective on teacher learning with new digital technologies and emerging evidence-based pedagogies in today’s contemporary schools. Future research needs to consider the informal structures that teachers create to support their professional learning so that these effective strategies are better understood and supported by school leaders.
Keywords: Professional learning; teacher learning; 21st Century education; learning; school; maintaining currency; global change.
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